Great Barrier Reef called “coral paradise of Australia.” Known as the largest bio-systems on the planet and one of the few objects that can be seen from outer space.
The barrier reef is located on an area of 348,698 square kilometers between Cape York in the north and Lady Elliot Island to the south. Incorporates nearly 2900 reef, over 300 islands and coral cays, some of which are covered with exotic vegetation.
The Great Barrier Reef is the longest coral reef in the world (2000 km). It is home to over 400 species of coral formations and 1500 species of fish. Among its unique inhabitants are the whales, the big green turtle, “sea cow” and other, endangered, species. Due to the uniqueness of its nature, the coral reef is under the auspices of UNESCO.
“Its residents” live in huge groups, each of which developed from individual coral polyps that divide repeatedly. In appearance they resemble sea anemones. They consist of a soft body enclosed in an outer skeleton, forming reef. On the other hand, the living coral reef arises develop from the alternation of living and dead coral formations. Accumulation of corals is derived from the skeletons of already dead organisms that grow on the living. The notion of a unique color pageant in the ocean is a consequence of the vividness and variety of colors of coral formations. The Great Barrier Reef is known as one of the most curious geological attractions in the world and because of its hard reef-ish reliefs – extremely varied in shape and size.
It is in the area of the Great Barrier Reef that was found the smallest vertebrate life form in the world. A team of Australian and American scientists called the fish inhabiting the coral reef lagoons, Schindleria brevipinguis. Although ocean biologists know about its existence since 1979, they have only recently been able to clarify the origin and variety. Prof. Dr. Tom Trinski and his colleague from the Australian Museum Dr. Jeff Lace believe that Schindleria brevipinguis, weighing only 1 milligram and 7-8 mm long, is a new kind of organic life in the region.
But as world news agencies alarm, the life of the coral paradise of Australia is endangered. Overfishing of ocean fish, serious pollution and soil erosion in coastal farms are the main reasons for the appeal of environmentalists. Their plan to protect the barrier reef relies on a strict ban on fishing in the main part of its territory. Another reason for their anxiety is linked to global warming of the earth’s climate. For example, “discoloration” of coral formations is a consequence of the global climatic warming in the region.
The fact that the Great Barrier Reef is a tourist attraction would have disastrous consequences for the tourism and fishing industry of Australia. Thanks to him, the annual revenue budget in the Australian tourism in this region amounted to about 2 billion and 700 million dollars. According to preliminary data, any losses will amount to millions of dollars and thousands of Australians will lose their jobs. Proposal of environmentalists is associated with concentration of tourist activity in a certain part of the reef. This will allow the rest of the Great Barrier Reef to preserve undisturbed by unwanted interference.
According to biologists from the Centre for Marine Research at the University of Queensland, coral formations could not adapt to the new climatic conditions fast enough to survive in the biological environment. The vast majority of them will die in the next 50 years due to real increase in temperatures in the region. Even the most optimistic forecast, providing warming to 2 degrees Celsius, rejected the possibility of successful adaptation to the new air picture. Experts warn that by the middle of this century coral organisms will disappear completely and irrevocably.